The aim of this work is to conduct a systemic overview and critical analysis of the body of data in the literature on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is the commonest single cause of anovulation; affecting approximately 5-10% of women in the reproductive age. The syndrome can present in a variety of clinical manifestations including oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, and infertility. Endocrinal features include high sustained level of luteinizing hormone with normal level of follicle stimulating hormone, and hyperandrogenism. PCOS may be also associated with hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and altered lipid profile. Medical induction of ovulation is considered the first line of treatment for anovulatory PCOS. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling may be of value in women resistant to medical induction. However, the efficacy and long-term safety this technique is not yet established.